Skip to main content
BJR alerts
Full Paper

Non-rigid image registration: theory and practice

Published Online:https://doi.org/10.1259/bjr/25329214

Abstract

Image registration is an important enabling technology in medical image analysis. The current emphasis is on development and validation of application-specific non-rigid techniques, but there is already a plethora of techniques and terminology in use. In this paper we discuss the current state of the art of non-rigid registration to put on-going research in context and to highlight current and future clinical applications that might benefit from this technology. The philosophy and motivation underlying non-rigid registration is discussed and a guide to common terminology is presented. The core components of registration systems are described and outstanding issues of validity and validation are confronted.

References

  • 1 Hill DLG, Batchelor PG, Holden M, Hawkes DJ. Medical image registration. Phys Med Biol 2001;46:R1–R45. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 2 Freeborough PA, Fox NC. Modeling brain deformations in Alzheimer disease by fluid registration of serial 3D MR images. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1998;22:838–43. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 3 Li BJ, Christensen GE, Hoffman EA, McLennan G, Reinhardt JM. Establishing a normative atlas of the human lung: intersubject warping and registration of volumetric CT images. Acad Radiol 2003;10:255–65. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 4 Orchard J, Greif C, Golub GH, Bjornson B, Atkins MS. Simultaneous registration and activation detection for fMRI. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2003;22:1427–35. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 5 Ashburner J, Friston KJ. Nonlinear spatial normalization using basis functions. Human Brain Mapping 1999;7:254–66. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 6 Bidaut LM, Vallee JP. Automated registration of dynamic MR images for the quantification of myocardial perfusion. J Magn Reson Imaging 2001;13:648–55. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 7 McLeish K, Kozerke S, Crum WR, Hill DLG. Free breathing radial acquisitions of the heart. Magn Reson Med 2004;52:1127–35. Google Scholar

  • 8 Pelizzari CA, Chen GTY, Spelbring DR, Weichselbaum RR, Chen CT. Accurate 3-dimensional registration of CT, PET, and/or MR images of the brain. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1989;13:20–6. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 9 Hill DLG, Hawkes DJ, Crossman JE, Gleeson MJ, Cox TCS, Bracey EECML, et al. Registration of MR and CT images for skull base surgery using point-like anatomical features. Br J Radiol 1991;64:1030–5. Link ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 10 Hajnal JV, Hill DLG, Hawkes DJ, editors. In: Medical image registration. CRC Press Boca Raton, 2001. Google Scholar

  • 11 Hawkes DJ, Barratt D, Blackall JM, Chan C, Edwards PJ, Rhode K, et al. Tissue deformation and shape models in image-guided interventions: a discussion paper. Med Image Anal 2004; In Press. Google Scholar

  • 12 Ferrant M, Nabavi A, Macq B, Black PM, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R, et al. Serial registration of intraoperative MR images of the brain. Med Image Anal 2002;6:337–59. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 13 Thompson PM, Mega MS, Woods RP, Zoumalan CI, Lindshield CJ, Blanton RE, et al. Cortical change in Alzheimer's disease detected with a disease-specific population-based brain atlas. Cerebral Cortex 2001;11:1–16. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 14 Thompson PM, Giedd JN, Woods RP, MacDonald D, Evans AC, Toga AW. Growth patterns in the developing human brain detected using continuum-mechanical tensor mapping. Nature 2000;404:190–3. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 15 Brown LG. A survey of image registration techniques. Computing Surveys 1992;24:325–76. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16 Lester H, Arridge SR. A survey of hierarchical non-linear medical image registration. Pattern Recognition 1999;32:129–49. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 17 Maintz JBA, Viergever MA. A survey of medical image registration. Med Image Anal 1998;2:1–36. Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar

  • 18 Zitova B, Flusser J. Image registration methods: a survey. Image Vision Comput 2003;21:977–1000. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 19 Makela T, Clarysse P, Sipila O, Pauna N, Pham QC, Katila T, et al. A review of cardiac image registration methods. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:1011–21. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 20 Hutton BF, Braun M, Thurfjell L, Lau DYH. Image registration: an essential tool for nuclear medicine. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2002;29:559–77. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 21 Rosenman JG, Miller EP, Tracton G, Cullip TJ. Image registration: an essential part of radiation therapy treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998;40:197–205. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 22 Meijering EHW, Niessen WJ, Viergever MA. Retrospective motion correction in digital subtraction angiography: a review. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1999;18:2–21. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 23 Toga AW, Thompson PM. The role of image registration in brain mapping. Image Vision Comput 2001;19:3–24 Sp. Iss. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 24 Thompson PM, Woods RP, Mega MS, Toga AW. Mathematical/computational challenges in creating deformable and probabilistic atlases of the human brain. Human Brain Mapping 2000;9:81–92. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 25 Rueckert D, Sonoda LI, Hayes C, Hill DLG, Leach MO, Hawkes DJ. Nonrigid registration using free-form deformations: application to breast MR images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1999;18:712–21. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 26 Johnson HJ, Christensen GE. Consistent landmark and intensity-based image registration. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:450–61. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 27 Crum WR, Griffin LD, Hill DLG, Hawkes DJ. Zen and the art of medical image registration: correspondence, homology, and quality. NeuroImage 2003;20:1425–37. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 28 Rohr K. Landmark-based image analysis: using geometric and intensity models. Volume 21 of Computational Imaging and Vision Series. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001. Google Scholar

  • 29 Rohr K, Stiehl HS, Sprengel R, Beil W, Buzug TM, Weese J, et al. Point-based elastic registration of medical image data using approximating thin-plate splines. Visualization in Biomedical Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1996;1131:297–306. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 30 Thirion JP, Gourdon A. Computing the differential characteristics of isointensity surfaces. Comput Vision Image Understanding 1995;61:190–202. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 31 Beil W, Rohr K, Stiehl HS. Investigation of approaches for the localization of anatomical landmarks in 3D medical images. In: H Lemke, M Vannier, K Inamura, editors. Proc Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. Berlin, Germany: Elsevier Science, 1997: 265–70. Google Scholar

  • 32 Rohr K, Stiehl HS, Sprengel R, Buzug TM, Weese J, Kuhn MH. Landmark-based elastic registration using approximating thin-plate splines. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2001;20:526–34. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 33 Rohr K, Fornefett M, Stiehl HS. Spline-based elastic image registration: integration of landmark errors and orientation attributes. Comput Vision Image Understanding 2003;90:153–68. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 34 Monga O, Benayoun S. Using partial derivatives of 3D images to extract typical surface features. Comput Vision Image Understanding 1995;61:171–89. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 35 Maintz JBA, vandenElsen PA, Viergever MA. Evaluation of ridge seeking operators for multimodality medical image matching. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal 1996;18:353–65. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 36 Lindeberg T. Edge detection and ridge detection with automatic scale selection. Int J Comput Vision 1998;30:117–54. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 37 Subsol G, Roberts N, Doran M, Thirion JP, Whitehouse GH. Automatic analysis of cerebral atrophy. Magn Reson Imaging 1997;15:917–27. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 38 Aylward SR, Jomier J, Weeks S, Bullitt E. Registration and analysis of vascular images. Int J Comput Vision 2003;55:123–38. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 39 Aylward SR, Bullitt E. Initialization, noise, singularities, and scale in height ridge traversal for tubular object centerline extraction. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:61–75. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 40 Chen CW, Huang TS, Arrott M. Modeling, analysis and visualization of left ventricle shape and motion by hierarchical decomposition. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Machine Intelligence 1994;16:342–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 41 Thompson PM, Toga AW. A surface-based technique for warping three-dimensional images of the brain. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1996;15:402–17. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 42 Audette MA, Siddiqi K, Peters TM. Level-set surface segmentation and fast cortical range image tracking for computing intrasurgical deformations. Proceedings of MICCAI'99, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1999;1679:788–97. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 43 Sethian JA. A fast marching level set method for monotonically advancing fronts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996;93:1591–5. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 44 Moshfeghi M, Ranganath S, Nawyn K. 3-Dimensional elastic matching of volumes. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1994;3:128–38. Google Scholar

  • 45 Davatzikos C, Prince JL, Bryan RN. Image registration based on boundary mapping. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1996;15:112–5. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 46 Ferrant M, Nabavi A, Macq B, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R, Warfield SK. Registration of 3-D intraoperative MR images of the brain using a finite-element biomechanical model. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2001;20:1384–97. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 47 Audette MA, Ferrie FP, Peters TM. An algorithmic overview of surface registration techniques for medical imaging. Med Image Anal 2000;4:201–17. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 48 Roche A, Malandain G, Pennec X, Ayache N. The correlation ratio as a new similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Proceedings of MICCAI 1998, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1998;1496:1115–24. Google Scholar

  • 49 Collins DL, LeGoualher G, Venugopal R, Caramanos A, Evans AC, Barillot C. Cortical constraints for non-linear cortical registration. Visualization in Biomedical Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1996;1131:307–16. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 50 Hellier P, Barillot C. Coupling dense and landmark-based approaches for nonrigid registration. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2003;22:217–27. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 51 Liu TM, Shen DG, Davatzikos C. Deformable registration of cortical structures via hybrid volumetric and surface warping. NeuroImage 2004;22:1790–801. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 52 Thompson PM, MacDonald D, Mega MS, Holmes CJ, Evans AC, Toga AW. Detection and mapping of abnormal brain structure with a probabilistic atlas of cortical surfaces. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1997;21:567–81. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 53 Christensen G, Carlson B, Chao KSC, Yin P, Grigsby PW, Nguyen K, et al. Image-based dose planning of intracavitary brachytherapy: registration of serial imaging studies using deformable anatomic templates. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001;51:227–43. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 54 Russakoff DB, Rohlfing T, Shahidi R, Kim DH, Adler JR, Maurer CR. Intensity-based 2D-3D spine image registration incorporating one fiducial marker. Proceedings of MICCAI 2003 Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2003;2878:287–94. Google Scholar

  • 55 Cachier P, Bardinet E, Dormont D, Pennec X, Ayache N. Iconic feature based nonrigid registration: the PASHA algorithm. Compu Vision Image Understanding 2003;89:272–98. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 56 Woods RP, Grafton ST, Watson JDG, Sicotte NL, Mazziotta JC. Automated image registration: II. Intersubject validation of linear and nonlinear models. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1998;22:153–65. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 57 Bookstein FL. Principal warps – thin-plate splines and the decomposition of deformations. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal 1989;11:567–85. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 58 DeQuardo JR, Keshavan MS, Bookstein FL, Bagwell WW, Green WDK, Sweeney JA, et al. Landmark-based morphometric analysis of first-episode schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:1321–8. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 59 Downhill JE, Buchsbaum MS, Wei TC, Spiegel-Cohen J, Hazlett EA, Haznedar MM, et al. Shape and size of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr Res 2000;42:193–208. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 60 Gharaibeh WS, Rohlf FJ, Slice DE, DeLisi LE. A geometric morphometric assessment of change in midline brain structural shape following a first episode of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2000;48:398–405. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 61 Holden M, Schnabel JA, Hill DLG. Quantification of small cerebral ventricular volume changes in treated growth hormone patients using non-rigid registration. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:1292–301. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 62 Mattes D, Haynor DR, Vesselle H, Lewellen TK, Eubank W. PET-CT image registration in the chest using free-form deformations. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2003;22:120–8. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 63 Frangi AF, Rueckert D, Schnabel JA, Niessen WJ. Automatic construction of multiple-object three-dimensional statistical shape models: application to cardiac modelling. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:1151–66. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 64 McLeish K, Hill DLG, Atkinson D, Blackall JM, Razavi R. A study of the motion and deformation of the heart due to respiration. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:1142–50. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 65 Rohlfing T, Maurer CR, O'Dell WG, Zhong JH. Modeling liver motion and deformation during the respiratory cycle using intensity-based nonrigid registration of gated MR images. Med Phys 2004;31:427–32. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 66 Schnabel JA, Tanner C, Castellano-Smith AD, Degenhard A, Leach MO, Hose DR, et al. Validation of non-rigid registration using finite element methods: application to breast MR images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2003;22:238–47. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 67 Tanner C, Schnabel JA, Degenhard A, Castellano-Smith AD, Hayes C, Leach MO, et al. Validation of volume-preserving non-rigid registration: application to contrast-enhanced MR-mammography. Proceedings of MICCAI 2002, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2002;2489:307–14. Google Scholar

  • 68 Bajcsy R, Kovacic S. Multiresolution elastic matching. Comp Vision Graphics Image Processing 1989;46:1–21. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 69 Christensen GE, Rabbitt RD, Miller MI. Deformable templates using large deformation kinematics. IEEE Trans Image Processing 1996;5:1435–47. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 70 BroNielsen M, Gramkow C. Fast fluid registration of medical images. Visualization in Biomedical Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1996;1131:267–76. Google Scholar

  • 71 Thirion J-P. Image matching as a diffusion process: an analogy with Maxwell's demons. Med Image Anal 1998;2:243–60. Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar

  • 72 Pennec X, Cachier P, Ayache A. Understanding the Demons' algorithm: 3D non-rigid registration by gradient descent. Proceedings of MICCAI 1999, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1999;1679:597–605. Google Scholar

  • 73 Hagemann A, Rohr K, Stiehl HS, Spetzger U, Gilsbach JM. Biomechanical modeling of the human head for physically based, nonrigid image registration. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1999;18:875–84. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 74 Dougherty L, Asmuth JC, Blom AS, Axel L, Kumar R. Validation of an optical flow method for tag displacement estimation. IEEE Trans Medl Imaging 1999;18:359–63. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 75 Dougherty L, Asmuth JC, Gefter WB. Alignment of CT lung volumes with an optical flow method. Acad Radiol 2003;10:249–54. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 76 Hayton PM, Brady M, Smith SM, Moore N. A non-rigid registration algorithm for dynamic breast MR images. Artificial Intelligence 1999;114:125–56. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 77 Mori K, Deguchi D, Sugiyama J, Suenaga Y, Toriwaki J, Maurer CR, et al. Tracking of a bronchoscope using epipolar geometry analysis and intensity-based image registration of real and virtual endoscopic images. Med Image Anal 2002;6:321–36. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 78 Fox NC, Crum WR, Scahill RI, Stevens JM, Janssen JC, Rossor MN. Imaging of onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease with voxel-compression mapping of serial MRI. Lancet 2001;358:201–5. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 79 Besl PJ, McKay HD. A method for registration of 3-D shapes. IEEE Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence 1992;14:239–56. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 80 Chui HL, Rangarajan A. A new point matching algorithm for non-rigid registration. Comput Vision Image Understanding 2003;89:114–41. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 81 Fitzgibbon AW. Robust registration of 2D and 3D point sets. Image Vision Comput 2003;21:1145–53. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 82 Press WH, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT, Flannery BP. Numerical recipes in C. The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Google Scholar

  • 83 Fitzpatrick JM, West JB. The distribution of target registration error in rigid-body point-based registration. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2001;20:917–27. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 84 Collins DL, Evans AC. Animal: validation and applications of nonlinear registration-based segmentation. Int J Pattern Recogn Artificial Intelligence 1997;11:1271–94. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 85 Christensen GE, Johnson HJ. Invertibility and transitivity analysis for nonrigid image registration. J Electron Imaging 2003;12:106–17. Crossref ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 86 Sermesant M, Forest C, Pennec X, Delingette H, Ayache N. Deformable biomechanical models: Application to 4D cardiac image analysis. Med Image Anal 2003;7:475–88. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 87 Rao A, Sanchez-Ortiz GI, Chandrashekara R, Lorenzo-Valdes M, Mohiaddin R, Rueckert D. Comparison of cardiac motion across subjects using non-rigid registration. Proceedings of MICCAI 2002 Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2002;2488:722–9. Google Scholar

  • 88 Slomka PJ, Nishina H, Berman DS, Kang XP, Akincioglu C, Friedman JD, et al. “Motion-frozen” display and quantification of myocardial perfusion. J Nucl Med 2004;45:1128–34. Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 89 Blackall JM, King AP, Penney GP, Adam A, Hawkes DJ. A statistical model of respiratory motion and deformation of the liver. Proceedings of MICCAI 2001, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2001;2208:1338–40. Google Scholar

  • 90 Gee J, Sundaram T, Hasegawa I, Uematsu H, Hatabu H. Characterization of regional pulmonary mechanics from serial magnetic resonance imaging data. Acad Radiol 2003;10:1147–52. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 91 Boldea V, Sarrut D, Clippe S. Lung deformation estimation with non-rigid registration for radiotherapy treatment. Proceedings of MICCAI 2003, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2003;2878:770–7. Google Scholar

  • 92 Fei B, Kemper C, Wilson DL. A comparative study of warping and rigid body registration for the prostate and pelvic MR volumes. Comput Med Imaging Graphics 2003;27:267–81. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 93 Bharatha A, Hirose M, Hata N, Warfield SK, Ferrant M, Zou KH, et al. Evaluation of three-dimensional finite element-based deformable registration of pre- and intraoperative prostate imaging. Med Phys 2001;28:2551–60. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 94 Schaly B, Kempe JA, Bauman GS, Battista JJ, Van Dyk J. Tracking the dose distribution in radiation therapy by accounting for variable anatomy. Phys Med Biol 2004;49:791–805. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 95 Hohe J, Faber S, Muehlbauer R, Reiser M, Englmeier KH, Eckstein F. Three-dimensional analysis and visualization of regional MR signal intensity distribution of articular cartilage. Med Eng Phys 2002;24:219–27. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 96 Bookstein FL. “Voxel-based morphometry” should not be used with imperfectly registered images. NeuroImage 2001;14:1454–62. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 97 Ashburner J, Friston KJ. Why voxel-based morphometry should be used. NeuroImage 2001;14:1238–43. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 98 Davatzikos C. Why voxel-based morphometric analysis should be used with great caution when characterizing group differences. NeuroImage 2004;23:17–20. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 99 Lancaster JL, Fox PT, Downs H, Nickerson DS, Hander TA, El Mallah M, et al. Global spatial normalization of human brain using convex hulls. J Nucl Med 1999;40:942–55. Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 100 Good CD, Johnsrude IS, Ashburner J, Henson RNA, Friston KJ, Frackowiak RSJ. A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains. NeuroImage 2001;14:21–36. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 101 Baron JC, Chetelat G, Desgranges B, Perchey G, Landeau B, de la Sayette V, et al. In vivo mapping of gray matter loss with voxel-based morphometry in mild Alzheimer's disease. NeuroImage 2001;14:298–309. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 102 Burton EJ, Karas G, Paling SM, Barber R, Williams ED, Ballard CG, et al. Patterns of cerebral atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies using voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage 2002;17:618–30. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 103 Busatto GE, Garrido GEJ, Almeida OP, Castro CC, Camargo CHP, Cid CG, et al. A voxel-based morphometry study of temporal lobe gray matter reductions in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 2003;24:221–31. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 104 Frisoni GB, Testa C, Zorzan A, Sabattoli F, Beltramello A, Soininen H, et al. Detection of grey matter loss in mild Alzheimer's disease with voxel based morphometry. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;73:657–64. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 105 Gee J, Ding LJ, Xie ZY, Lin M, DeVita C, Grossman M. Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia exhibit distinct atrophy-behavior correlates: a computer-assisted imaging study. Acad Radiol 2003;10:1392–401. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 106 Merschhemke M, Mitchell TN, Free SL, Hammers A, Kinton L, Siddiqui A, et al. Quantitative MRI detects abnormalities in relatives of patients with epilepsy and malformations of cortical development. NeuroImage 2003;18:642–9. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 107 Keller SS, Wieshmann UC, Mackay CE, Denby CE, Webb J, Roberts N. Voxel based morphometry of grey matter abnormalities in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy: effects of side of seizure onset and epilepsy duration. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;73:648–56. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 108 Job DE, Whalley HC, McConnell S, Glabus M, Johnstone EC, Lawrie SM. Voxel-based morphometry of grey matter densities in subjects at high risk of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003;64:1–13. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 109 Pol HEH, Schnack HG, Mandl RCW, Cahn W, Collins DL, Evans AC, et al. Focal white matter density changes in schizophrenia: reduced inter-hemispheric connectivity. NeuroImage 2004;21:27–35. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 110 Kochunov P, Lancaster J, Thompson P, Toga AW, Brewer P, Hardies J, et al. An optimized individual target brain in the talairach coordinate system. NeuroImage 2002;17:922–7. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 111 Cootes TF, Marsland S, Twining CJ, Smith K, Taylor CJ. Groupwise diffeomorphic non-rigid registration for automatic model building. Computer Vision - ECCV 2004 Part 4, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2004;2034:316–27. Google Scholar

  • 112 Hill DLG, Hajnal JV, Rueckert D, Smith SM, Hartkens T, McLeish K. A dynamic brain atlas. Proceedings of MICCAI 2002 Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2002;2488:532–9. Google Scholar

  • 113 Sonka M, Grunkin M. Image processing and analysis in drug discovery and clinical trials. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:1209–11. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 114 Meier DS, Guttmann CRG. Time-series analysis of MRI intensity patterns in multiple sclerosis. NeuroImage 2003;20:1193–209. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 115 Bosc M, Heitz F, Armpspach JP, Namer I, Gounot D, Rumbach L. Automatic change detection in multimodal serial MRI: application to multiple sclerosis lesion evolution. NeuroImage 2003;20:643–56. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 116 Hartkens T, Hill DLG, Castellano-Smith AD, Hawkes DJ, Maurer CR, Martin AJ, et al. Measurement and analysis of brain deformation during neurosurgery. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2003;22:82–92. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 117 Davis MH, Khotanzad A, Flamig DP, Harms SE. A physics-based coordinate transformation for 3-D image matching. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1997;16:317–28. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 118 Bruckner T, Lucht R, Brix G. Comparison of rigid and elastic matching of dynamic magnetic resonance mammographic images by mutual information. Med Phys 2000;27:2456–61. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 119 Rohlfing T, Maurer CR Jr, Bluemke DA, Jacobs MA. Volume-preserving nonrigid registration of MR breast images using free-form deformation with an incompressibility constraint. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2003;22:730–41. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 120 Xiao GF, Brady JM, Noble JA, Burcher M, English R. Nonrigid registration of 3-D free-hand ultrasound images of the breast. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:405–12. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 121 Shen DG, Herskovits EH, Davatzikos C. An adaptive-focus statistical shape model for segmentation and shape modeling of 3-D brain structures. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2001;20:257–70. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 122 Marroquin JL, Vemuri BC, Botello S, Calderon F, Fernandez-Bouzas A. An accurate and efficient Bayesian method for automatic segmentation of brain MRI. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2002;21:934–45. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 123 Klemencic J, Pluim JPW, Viergever MA. Non-rigid registration based active appearance models for 3D medical image segmentation. J Imaging Sci Technol 2004;48:166–71. ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 124 Crum WR, Scahill RI, Fox NC. Automated hippocampal segmentation by regional fluid registration of serial MRI: validation and application in Alzheimer's disease. NeuroImage 2001;13:847–55. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 125 Park H, Bland PH, Meyer CR. Construction of an abdominal Probabilistic atlas and its application in segmentation. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2003;22:483–92. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

  • 126 Noble NMI, Hill DLG, Breeuwer M, Schnabel JA, Hawkes DJ, Gerritsen FA, et al. Myocardial delineation via registration in a polar coordinate system. Acad Radiol 2003;10:1349–58. Crossref Medline ISIGoogle Scholar

Volume 77, Issue suppl_2December 2004
Pages: S107-S208

© The British Institute of Radiology


History

  • Published onlineJanuary 28,2014

Metrics


The authors are grateful for the intellectual and financial support of the Medical Images and Signals IRC (EPSRC and MRC GR/N14248/01) and the UK e-science project IXI. Images comprising Figures 2–6 were provided by members of the Computational Imaging Science Group at Guy's Hospital: K Leung, funded by EPSRC and GlaxoSmithKline, (Figure 2), B Sneller, funded by EPSRC, (Figures 3, 6), C Tanner, funded by EPSRC, (Figure 4), and Dr N Noble, funded by Philips Medical Systems Nederland B.V. Medical Imaging Information Technology – Advanced Development (Figure 5). Jo Hajnal of Imperial College supplied the 3T image in Figure 6. The authors acknowledge that many research groups around the world could have provided similar high-quality examples of non-rigid registration for this article.